Nicolas Tesla Inhaltsverzeichnis
Nikola Tesla war ein Erfinder, Physiker und Elektroingenieur. Sein Lebenswerk ist geprägt durch zahlreiche Neuerungen auf dem Gebiet der Elektrotechnik, insbesondere der elektrischen Energietechnik, wie die Entwicklung des heute als. Nikola Tesla (serbisch-kyrillisch Никола Тесла; * Juli in Smiljan, Kroatische Militärgrenze, Kaisertum Österreich; † 7. Januar in New York, USA). Der Serbe Nikola Tesla war einer der genialsten Erfinder aller Zeiten, doch immer wieder ließ er sich um die Früchte seiner Arbeit bringen. Der Physiker, Ingenieur und Erfinder Nikola Tesla experimentierte im frühen Jahrhundert mit Wechselstrom. Bild Everett Collection Inc., Alamy. Name: Nikola Tesla Geburt: Juli in Smiljan Tod: 7. Januar in New York (USA) Erreichtes Lebensalter: 86 Jahre Eltern: Milutin Tesla, Duka Tesla.
Der Physiker, Ingenieur und Erfinder Nikola Tesla experimentierte im frühen Jahrhundert mit Wechselstrom. Bild Everett Collection Inc., Alamy. Name: Nikola Tesla Geburt: Juli in Smiljan Tod: 7. Januar in New York (USA) Erreichtes Lebensalter: 86 Jahre Eltern: Milutin Tesla, Duka Tesla. Mit über weltweiten Patenten ist Nikola Tesla einer der größten Erfinder des Jahrhunderts. Ob Wechselstrom, Radio oder Funkfernsteuerung – mit.
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Westinghouse Electric asked Tesla to participate in the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago where the company had a large space in the "Electricity Building" devoted to electrical exhibits.
Westinghouse Electric won the bid to light the Exposition with alternating current and it was a key event in the history of AC power, as the company demonstrated to the American public the safety, reliability, and efficiency of an alternating current system that was polyphase and could also supply the other AC and DC exhibits at the fair.
A special exhibit space was set up to display various forms and models of Tesla's induction motor.
The rotating magnetic field that drove them was explained through a series of demonstrations including an Egg of Columbus that used the two phase coil found in an induction motor to spin a copper egg making it stand on end.
Tesla visited the fair for a week during its six-month run to attend the International Electrical Congress and put on a series of demonstrations at the Westinghouse exhibit.
Within the room were suspended two hard-rubber plates covered with tin foil. These were about fifteen feet apart, and served as terminals of the wires leading from the transformers.
When the current was turned on, the lamps or tubes, which had no wires connected to them, but lay on a table between the suspended plates, or which might be held in the hand in almost any part of the room, were made luminous.
These were the same experiments and the same apparatus shown by Tesla in London about two years previous, "where they produced so much wonder and astonishment".
During his presentation at the International Electrical Congress in the Columbian Exposition Agriculture Hall, Tesla introduced his steam powered reciprocating electricity generator that he patented that year, something he thought was a better way to generate alternating current.
The magnetic armature vibrated up and down at high speed, producing an alternating magnetic field. This induced alternating electric current in the wire coils located adjacent.
In , Edward Dean Adams , who headed up the Niagara Falls Cataract Construction Company , sought Tesla's opinion on what system would be best to transmit power generated at the falls.
Over several years, there had been a series of proposals and open competitions on how best to use power generated by the falls.
Among the systems proposed by several US and European companies were two-phase and three-phase AC, high-voltage DC, and compressed air.
Adams asked Tesla for information about the current state of all the competing systems. Tesla advised Adams that a two-phased system would be the most reliable, and that there was a Westinghouse system to light incandescent bulbs using two-phase alternating current.
The company awarded a contract to Westinghouse Electric for building a two-phase AC generating system at the Niagara Falls, based on Tesla's advice and Westinghouse's demonstration at the Columbian Exposition that they could build a complete AC system.
At the same time, a further contract was awarded to General Electric to build the AC distribution system.
In , Edward Dean Adams, impressed with what he saw when he toured Tesla's lab, agreed to help found the Nikola Tesla Company, set up to fund, develop, and market a variety of previous Tesla patents and inventions as well as new ones.
Alfred Brown signed on, bringing along patents developed under Peck and Brown. The company handled Tesla's patents for decades to come. In the early morning hours of 13 March , the South Fifth Avenue building that housed Tesla's lab caught fire.
It started in the basement of the building and was so intense Tesla's 4th floor lab burned and collapsed into the second floor.
The fire not only set back Tesla's ongoing projects, it destroyed a collection of early notes and research material, models, and demonstration pieces, including many that had been exhibited at the Worlds Colombian Exposition.
What can I say? Starting in , Tesla began investigating what he referred to as radiant energy of "invisible" kinds after he had noticed damaged film in his laboratory in previous experiments  later identified as "Roentgen rays" or " X-Rays ".
His early experiments were with Crookes tubes , a cold cathode electrical discharge tube. Tesla may have inadvertently captured an X-ray image—predating, by a few weeks, Wilhelm Röntgen 's December announcement of the discovery of X-rays when he tried to photograph Mark Twain illuminated by a Geissler tube , an earlier type of gas discharge tube.
The only thing captured in the image was the metal locking screw on the camera lens. In March , after hearing of Röntgen's discovery of X-ray and X-ray imaging radiography ,  Tesla proceeded to do his own experiments in X-ray imaging, developing a high energy single terminal vacuum tube of his own design that had no target electrode and that worked from the output of the Tesla Coil the modern term for the phenomenon produced by this device is bremsstrahlung or braking radiation.
In his research, Tesla devised several experimental setups to produce X-rays. Tesla held that, with his circuits, the "instrument will Tesla noted the hazards of working with his circuit and single-node X-ray-producing devices.
In his many notes on the early investigation of this phenomenon, he attributed the skin damage to various causes. He believed early on that damage to the skin was not caused by the Roentgen rays, but by the ozone generated in contact with the skin, and to a lesser extent, by nitrous acid.
Tesla incorrectly believed that X-rays were longitudinal waves, such as those produced in waves in plasmas. These plasma waves can occur in force-free magnetic fields.
On 11 July , the New York Herald Tribune published an article on Tesla, in which he recalled an event that occasionally took place while experimenting with his single-electrode vacuum tubes.
A minute particle would break off the cathode, pass out of the tube, and physically strike him:. Tesla said he could feel a sharp stinging pain where it entered his body, and again at the place where it passed out.
In comparing these particles with the bits of metal projected by his "electric gun," Tesla said, "The particles in the beam of force In , Tesla demonstrated a boat that used a coherer -based radio control —which he dubbed "telautomaton"—to the public during an electrical exhibition at Madison Square Garden.
From the s through , Tesla spent a great deal of his time and fortune on a series of projects trying to develop the transmission of electrical power without wires.
It was an expansion of his idea of using coils to transmit power that he had been demonstrating in wireless lighting. He saw this as not only a way to transmit large amounts of power around the world but also, as he had pointed out in his earlier lectures, a way to transmit worldwide communications.
At the time Tesla was formulating his ideas, there was no feasible way to wirelessly transmit communication signals over long distances, let alone large amounts of power.
Tesla had studied radio waves early on, and came to the conclusion that part of existing study on them, by Hertz, was incorrect.
By the mids, Tesla was working on the idea that he might be able to conduct electricity long distance through the Earth or the atmosphere, and began working on experiments to test this idea including setting up a large resonance transformer magnifying transmitter in his East Houston Street lab.
To further study the conductive nature of low pressure air, Tesla set up an experimental station at high altitude in Colorado Springs during Astor thought he was primarily investing in the new wireless lighting system.
Instead, Tesla used the money to fund his Colorado Springs experiments. During his time at his laboratory, Tesla observed unusual signals from his receiver which he speculated to be communications from another planet.
He mentioned them in a letter to a reporter in December  and to the Red Cross Society in December Tesla had an agreement with the editor of The Century Magazine to produce an article on his findings.
The magazine sent a photographer to Colorado to photograph the work being done there. He explained the superiority of the wireless system he envisioned but the article was more of a lengthy philosophical treatise than an understandable scientific description of his work,  illustrated with what were to become iconic images of Tesla and his Colorado Springs experiments.
Tesla made the rounds in New York trying to find investors for what he thought would be a viable system of wireless transmission, wining and dining them at the Waldorf-Astoria 's Palm Garden the hotel where he was living at the time , The Players Club , and Delmonico's.
By July , Tesla had expanded his plans to build a more powerful transmitter to leap ahead of Marconi's radio-based system, which Tesla thought was a copy of his own.
A month after Marconi's success, Tesla tried to get Morgan to back an even larger plan to transmit messages and power by controlling "vibrations throughout the globe".
Tesla continued the project for another nine months into Investors on Wall Street were putting their money into Marconi's system, and some in the press began turning against Tesla's project, claiming it was a hoax.
Seifer suspects was a nervous breakdown on Tesla's part. After Wardenclyffe closed, Tesla continued to write to Morgan; after "the great man" died, Tesla wrote to Morgan's son Jack, trying to get further funding for the project.
In , Tesla opened offices at Broadway in Manhattan, trying to raise further funds by developing and marketing his patents.
He went on to have offices at the Metropolitan Life Tower from to ; rented for a few months at the Woolworth Building , moving out because he could not afford the rent; and then to office space at 8 West 40th Street from to After moving to 8 West 40th Street, he was effectively bankrupt.
Most of his patents had run out and he was having trouble with the new inventions he was trying to develop.
When World War I broke out, the British cut the transatlantic telegraph cable linking the US to Germany in order to control the flow of information between the two countries.
They also tried to shut off German wireless communication to and from the US by having the US Marconi Company sue the German radio company Telefunken for patent infringement.
The case stalled and then went moot when the US entered the war against Germany in In , Tesla attempted to sue the Marconi Company for infringement of his wireless tuning patents.
Marconi's initial radio patent had been awarded in the US in , but his patent submission covering improvements to radio transmission had been rejected several times, before it was finally approved in , on the grounds that it infringed on other existing patents including two Tesla wireless power tuning patents.
On 6 November , a Reuters news agency report from London had the Nobel Prize in Physics awarded to Thomas Edison and Nikola Tesla; however, on 15 November, a Reuters story from Stockholm stated the prize that year was being awarded to Sir William Henry Bragg and William Lawrence Bragg "for their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays".
In the years after these rumors, neither Tesla nor Edison won the prize although Edison received one of 38 possible bids in and Tesla received one of 38 possible bids in Tesla attempted to market several devices based on the production of ozone.
These included his Tesla Ozone Company selling an patented device based on his Tesla Coil, used to bubble ozone through different types of oils to make a therapeutic gel.
Tesla theorized that the application of electricity to the brain enhanced intelligence. In , he crafted "a plan to make dull students bright by saturating them unconsciously with electricity," wiring the walls of a schoolroom and, "saturating [the schoolroom] with infinitesimal electric waves vibrating at high frequency.
The whole room will thus, Mr. Tesla claims, be converted into a health-giving and stimulating electromagnetic field or 'bath. Before World War I , Tesla sought overseas investors.
After the war started, Tesla lost the funding he was receiving from his patents in European countries. In the August edition of the magazine Electrical Experimenter , Tesla postulated that electricity could be used to locate submarines via using the reflection of an "electric ray" of "tremendous frequency," with the signal being viewed on a fluorescent screen a system that has been noted to have a superficial resemblance to modern radar.
Girardeau said, " Tesla was prophesying or dreaming, since he had at his disposal no means of carrying them out, but one must add that if he was dreaming, at least he was dreaming correctly".
In , Tesla received U. Patent 1,, , for a biplane capable of taking off vertically VTOL aircraft and then of being "gradually tilted through manipulation of the elevator devices" in flight until it was flying like a conventional plane.
Regis Hotel in and followed a pattern from then on of moving to a different hotel every few years and leaving unpaid bills behind.
Tesla walked to the park every day to feed the pigeons. He began feeding them at the window of his hotel room and nursed injured birds back to health.
I have been feeding pigeons, thousands of them for years. But there was one, a beautiful bird, pure white with light grey tips on its wings; that one was different.
It was a female. I had only to wish and call her and she would come flying to me. I loved that pigeon as a man loves a woman, and she loved me.
As long as I had her, there was a purpose to my life. Tesla's unpaid bills, as well as complaints about the mess made by pigeons, led to his eviction from the St.
Regis in Tesla moved to the Hotel New Yorker in Accounts of how this came about vary. Several sources claim that Westinghouse was concerned, or possibly warned, about potential bad publicity arising from the impoverished conditions in which their former star inventor was living.
Tesla biographer Marc Seifer described the Westinghouse payments as a type of "unspecified settlement".
In , a young science-fiction writer whom Tesla befriended, Kenneth Swezey, organized a celebration for the inventor's 75th birthday.
The party went so well that Tesla made it an annual event, an occasion where he would put out a large spread of food and drink—featuring dishes of his own creation.
He invited the press in order to see his inventions and hear stories about his past exploits, views on current events, and sometimes baffling claims.
At the party, Tesla claimed he had invented a motor that would run on cosmic rays. He claimed it was a theory of energy that was "violently opposed" to Einsteinian physics, and could be tapped with an apparatus that would be cheap to run and last years.
He also told reporters he was working on a way to transmit individualized private radio wavelengths, working on breakthroughs in metallurgy, and developing a way to photograph the retina to record thought.
At the occasion, Tesla told reporters he had designed a superweapon he claimed would end all war. Tesla never revealed detailed plans of how the weapon worked during his lifetime but, in , they surfaced at the Nikola Tesla Museum archive in Belgrade.
In at his 79th birthday party, Tesla covered many topics. He claimed to have discovered the cosmic ray in and invented a way to produce direct current by induction , and made many claims about his mechanical oscillator.
I have built, demonstrated and used it. Only a little time will pass before I can give it to the world. In the fall of at the age of 81, after midnight one night, Tesla left the Hotel New Yorker to make his regular commute to the cathedral and library to feed the pigeons.
While crossing a street a couple of blocks from the hotel, Tesla was unable to dodge a moving taxicab and was thrown to the ground. His back was severely wrenched and three of his ribs were broken in the accident.
The full extent of his injuries was never known; Tesla refused to consult a doctor, an almost lifelong custom, and never fully recovered.
His body was later found by maid Alice Monaghan after she had entered Tesla's room, ignoring the "do not disturb" sign that Tesla had placed on his door two days earlier.
Assistant medical examiner H. Wembley examined the body and ruled that the cause of death had been coronary thrombosis.
Trump , a professor at M. In a box purported to contain a part of Tesla's "death ray", Trump found a year-old multidecade resistance box.
John the Divine in Manhattan. After the funeral, Tesla's body was taken to the Ferncliff Cemetery in Ardsley, New York, where it was later cremated.
Tesla obtained around patents worldwide for his inventions. There are a minimum of known patents  issued to Tesla in 26 countries.
Many of Tesla's patents were in the United States, Britain , and Canada , but many other patents were approved in countries around the globe.
His appearance was described by newspaper editor Arthur Brisbane as "almost the tallest, almost the thinnest and certainly the most serious man who goes to Delmonico's regularly".
Tesla read many works, memorizing complete books, and supposedly possessed a photographic memory. During his early life, Tesla was repeatedly stricken with illness.
He suffered a peculiar affliction in which blinding flashes of light appeared before his eyes, often accompanied by visions. Just by hearing the name of an item, he could envision it in realistic detail.
He typically did not make drawings by hand but worked from memory. Beginning in his childhood, Tesla had frequent flashbacks to events that had happened previously in his life.
Tesla never married, explaining that his chastity was very helpful to his scientific abilities.
His opinion had started to sway in later years when he felt that women were trying to outdo men and make themselves more dominant.
This "new woman" was met with much indignation from Tesla, who felt that women were losing their femininity by trying to be in power. In an interview with the Galveston Daily News on 10 August he stated, "In place of the soft voiced, gentle woman of my reverent worship, has come the woman who thinks that her chief success in life lies in making herself as much as possible like man—in dress, voice and actions, in sports and achievements of every kind The tendency of women to push aside man, supplanting the old spirit of cooperation with him in all the affairs of life, is very disappointing to me".
Tesla was asocial and prone to seclude himself with his work. Robert Underwood Johnson described him as attaining a "distinguished sweetness, sincerity, modesty, refinement, generosity, and force".
Tesla occasionally attended dinner parties held by Viereck and his wife. Tesla could be harsh at times and openly expressed disgust for overweight people, such as when he fired a secretary because of her weight.
He had no hobby, cared for no sort of amusement of any kind and lived in utter disregard of the most elementary rules of hygiene His method was inefficient in the extreme, for an immense ground had to be covered to get anything at all unless blind chance intervened and, at first, I was almost a sorry witness of his doings, knowing that just a little theory and calculation would have saved him 90 percent of the labor.
But he had a veritable contempt for book learning and mathematical knowledge, trusting himself entirely to his inventor's instinct and practical American sense.
Tesla claimed never to sleep more than two hours per night. Swezey recalled one morning when Tesla called him at 3 a. Suddenly, the telephone ring awakened me Tesla then telephoned his dinner order to the headwaiter, who also could be the only one to serve him.
He dined alone, except on the rare occasions when he would give a dinner to a group to meet his social obligations. He curled his toes one hundred times for each foot every night, saying that it stimulated his brain cells.
In an interview with newspaper editor Arthur Brisbane , Tesla said that he did not believe in telepathy, stating, "Suppose I made up my mind to murder you," he said, "In a second you would know it.
Now, isn't that wonderful? By what process does the mind get at all this? Tesla became a vegetarian in his later years, living on only milk, bread, honey, and vegetable juices.
Tesla disagreed with the theory of atoms being composed of smaller subatomic particles , stating there was no such thing as an electron creating an electric charge.
He believed that if electrons existed at all, they were some fourth state of matter or "sub-atom" that could exist only in an experimental vacuum and that they had nothing to do with electricity.
He was a believer in the 19th-century concept of an all-pervasive ether that transmitted electrical energy. Tesla was generally antagonistic towards theories about the conversion of matter into energy.
I hold that space cannot be curved, for the simple reason that it can have no properties. It might as well be said that God has properties.
He has not, but only attributes and these are of our own making. Of properties we can only speak when dealing with matter filling the space.
To say that in the presence of large bodies space becomes curved is equivalent to stating that something can act upon nothing. I, for one, refuse to subscribe to such a view.
Tesla claimed to have developed his own physical principle regarding matter and energy that he started working on in ,  and in , at age 81, claimed in a letter to have completed a "dynamic theory of gravity" that "[would] put an end to idle speculations and false conceptions, as that of curved space".
He stated that the theory was "worked out in all details" and that he hoped to soon give it to the world. Tesla is widely considered by his biographers to have been a humanist in philosophical outlook on top of his gifts as a technological scientist.
Tesla expressed the belief that human "pity" had come to interfere with the natural "ruthless workings of nature".
Though his argumentation did not depend on a concept of a "master race" or the inherent superiority of one person over another, he advocated for eugenics.
In a interview he stated:. The only method compatible with our notions of civilization and the race is to prevent the breeding of the unfit by sterilization and the deliberate guidance of the mating instinct The trend of opinion among eugenists is that we must make marriage more difficult.
Certainly no one who is not a desirable parent should be permitted to produce progeny. A century from now it will no more occur to a normal person to mate with a person eugenically unfit than to marry a habitual criminal.
In , Tesla commented on the ills of the social subservience of women and the struggle of women toward gender equality , and indicated that humanity's future would be run by " Queen Bees ".
He believed that women would become the dominant sex in the future. Tesla made predictions about the relevant issues of a post-World War I environment in a printed article, "Science and Discovery are the great Forces which will lead to the Consummation of the War" 20 December Tesla was raised an Orthodox Christian.
Later in life he did not consider himself to be a "believer in the orthodox sense," said he opposed religious fanaticism , and said "Buddhism and Christianity are the greatest religions both in number of disciples and in importance".
When this functioning ceases, the 'soul' or the 'spirit' ceases likewise". Tesla wrote a number of books and articles for magazines and journals.
Tesla's legacy has endured in books, films, radio, TV, music, live theater, comics, and video games.
The impact of the technologies invented or envisioned by Tesla is a recurring theme in several types of science fiction. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other uses, see Nikola Tesla disambiguation. Serbian American inventor. Smiljan , Austrian Empire modern-day Croatia.
New York City , United States. Alternating current high-voltage, high-frequency power experiments. Order of St. Main article: Tesla coil.
Main article: Tesla's oscillator. Main article: Wardenclyffe Tower. Main article: Tesla turbine. Main article: List of Nikola Tesla patents.
See also: Nikola Tesla in popular culture. Main article: List of things named after Nikola Tesla. Electronics portal Energy portal Engineering portal Physics portal Technology portal.
Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. BBC News. Retrieved 20 May Comprehensive Dictionary of Electrical Engineering Tesla Memorial Society of New York.
Retrieved 3 June Marconi and Tesla: Pioneers of Radio Communication. Tesla Memorial Society of NY.
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Eastford: Martino Fine Books. From Colorado Springs to Long Island: research notes. Belgrade: Nikola Tesla Museum. Retrieved 8 July The complete patents of Nikola Tesla.
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Richard Burnett private website. Retrieved 24 July Tesla: Master of Lightning. Reprinted as a book of the same name by.
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Radford, VA: Wiilder Publications. Friday, 13 March " ". Transactions of the American Electro-therapeutic Association. Retrieved 25 November Breckenridge, Colo.
Archived from the original on 22 June Retrieved 22 June Retrieved 10 September — via Google Books. Anderson, 21st Century Books, , p.
Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. The Electrical Experimenter. Tesla died in his room on January 7, Later that year the U.
The AC system he championed and improved remains the global standard for power transmission. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us!
Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present. In his 84 years, Thomas Edison acquired a record number of 1, patents singly or jointly and was the driving force behind such innovations as the phonograph, the incandescent light bulb and one of the earliest motion picture cameras.
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